The evolution of the currency has been raised to a completely digital level, and it may currently have no physical representation, being only in a bank account in the form of a computer record, consisting of a monetary value registered, for example on your smartphone.
Crypto-currency is nothing more than digital codes which are assigned certain values controlled by a data system, where records of transactions are kept permanently, protecting crypto-currency from being falsified or stolen.
In general terms, and according to the European Central Bank’s definition, crypto-currency is a type of digital money, not yet regulated, nor linked to any central bank.
Bitcoin is the crypto-currency that has been most valued in recent years, currently it is worth more than gold. In fact, crypto-currencies like Bitcoin have been gaining importance in the international financial sector, both as an investment and for the protection of financial assets. Where some may see uncertainty, the risk-takers see it as an opportunity.
Although the Portuguese Tax and Customs Authority (AT) has already pronounced itself on the matter, through binding information, it does not materialize that crypto-currencies should be taxed as financial assets.
However, the AT considers that taxpayers who have registered as free-lancers to transact crypto-currencies should be subject to taxation on business or professional income (category B type of income). The AT also opens the hypothesis that the income obtained through the crypto-currencies can be considered an asset increase, and be considered a capital gain.
Regardless of whether or not any of the options are considered, for taxpayers carrying out any activity related to crypto-currencies, in another country, such income, provided it is generated outside Portugal, is exempt from taxation under the non-habitual resident regime for a period of ten years after the status is granted.
In another, more recent, binding information issued by the tax authorities on the issue of crypto-currencies, dealing not with personal income tax but with VAT, following the European Union Court of Justice’s jurisprudence which consideres “bitcoin, like traditional currencies which have a discharging value, has no other purpose than to serve as a means of payment”. This means that “since they are means of payment whose function is in itself exhausted, their mere transfer does not constitute a chargeable event for VAT”.
Although the issue of taxation of crypto-currencies continues to be a controversial one, and the lack of regulation in Portugal regarding operations and transactions of crypto-currencies has both sides of the advantage and of the uncertainty, the truth is that Portugal ends up becoming attractive for people who want to invest in crypto-currencies, if one considers the possibility of relocating to Portugal and taking advantage of the regime of the Non-habitual Resident.
Being a completely remote activity, it makes more and more sense to look at this type of investment and to congregate it to the regime of the Non-habitual Resident, where the eventual gains with the crypto-currencies, whether they are dividends, income from a professional activity, or capital gains from an asset increase, would be exempt from taxation for ten years under that regime.
Besides the benefit of living in one of the most beautiful and safe countries in the world, with a fantastic climate, and with excellent living conditions, many of those who created their structures abroad to invest in crypto-currencies, could ensure the non-taxation of their earnings for a period of ten years.
auctores Pedro Marrana & Vitor Abreu
Miguel Pinto-Correia holds a Master Degree in International Economics and European Studies from ISEG – Lisbon School of Economics & Management and a Bachelor Degree in Economics from Nova School of Business and Economics. He is a permanent member of the Order of the Economists (Ordem dos Economistas)… Read more